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Instructive Sheet
 

The ESR is an easy to use tool. You will find that in this section it is briefly described the operations you must perform in order to correctly acquire the electronic configuration of the correspondent chemical element.

It is wise to mention that the ESR meets the three basic principles to acquire the element’s electronic configuration. These principles are described as follows so as to have better knowledge of the topic.

 

Pauli Exclusion Principle

In one orbital there can exist up to two electrons of opposite spin which is a reason why the existence of two electrons in the same atom to have the same four quantum numbers is not possible.

 

Auf-Bau principle or rule

Each new electron that is added to an atom will enter an available orbital of minimal energy.

 

Maximum multiplicity principle or Hund’s rule

Within a sub-level, the first electrons occupy separate orbital and have parallel spin because electrons enter one by one in the orbital containing the same energy.

Following, when the orbitals of the sub level are completed with one electron, then each orbital becomes saturated by receiving another electron with a negative spin. This process is done in an orderly manner.

 

Electronic configurations

To facilitate the calculation process of the electronic configuration of any chemical element, it is recommended to read the basic principles described previously in order to obtain a better understanding of the topic.

 

THE ELECTRON CONFIGURATION CALCULATION PROCEDURE

  1. Consult the symbol or atomic number of the element that you wish to calculate its electronic configuration.

  2. Consulting the ESR, identify the element from which you would like to calculate its electronic configuration by way of its symbol or corresponding atomic number.

  3. Determine the chemical element’s electronic configuration by writing down the number and type of the orbital from the beginning of the rule to conclude in the corresponding differential electron of the element.

Example:

Aluminium: Al[13]
Electronic configuration: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p1

Radio: Ra[88]
Electronic configuration: 1s2,2s2,2p6,3s2,3p6,4s2,3d10,4p6,5s2,4d10,5p6,6s2,4f14,5d10,6p6,72

Note:

3p1 y 7s2 are the differential electrons corresponding to each element.

 

Kernel configuration

Kernel Configuration, which objective consists in determining the electronic configuration or the energetic diagram of an element by parting from a noble gas, it’s an abbreviation technique for those elements which atomic number is very high.

Note:

Noble gases are identified by the yellow color through all the ESR.

 

THE KERNEL ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS CALCULATION PROCEDURE

  1. Consult the symbol or atomic number of the element that you wish to calculate its Kernel configuration.
  2. Consulting the ESR, identify the element from which you would like to calculate its Kernel configuration by way of its symbol or corresponding atomic number.
  3. Look for the closest noble gas (yellow) to the left of the selected element. The noble gas has to be of a less atomic number from that of the element which its Kernel configuration is desired.
  4. Determine the Kernel configuration of the element by noting first the chosen noble gas symbol. Parting from such symbol, write the number and the type of orbital that continues to the right of the noble gas until concluding in the differential electron corresponding to the element from which its electronic structure is being calculated.
Example:

Chloinee: Cl[17]
Kernel Configuration: [Ne] , 3s2,3p5

Silver: Ag[47]
Kernel Configuration: [Kr] , 5s2,4d9

Plutonium: Pu[94]
Kernel Configuration: [Rn] , 7s2,5f6

 

Energy levels

To determine the corresponding energy levels of each element it is necessary to remember that the Atom’s structure is given by 7 levels of energy, which are given the following name and order: K, L, M, N, O, P, and Q.

Observations:

  1. Each level of energy contains certain quantity of electrons, therefore the blacken numbers in the corresponding spaces to such information in the REE; indicate the total number of electrons that correspond to the type of energy level that is specified in the superior line.
  2. Example: K=2, L=8

  3. In those elements in which the value of another energy level appears means that the value of such level corresponds to the chemical element in question.

Example:

Zirconium: Zr[40]
Niveau d'énergie: K=2, L=8, M=18, N=10, O=2

Silver: Ag[47]
Niveau d'énergie: K=2, L=8, M=18, N=18, O=1

  1. Consult the symbol or atomic number of the element that you wish to calculate its energy levels
  2. Consulting the REE, identify the element from which you would like to determine its energy levels by way of its symbol or corresponding atomic number.
  3. Determine the corresponding energy levels of the element by writing from the very beginning of the REE the type of level and its equivalent or total value (blacken numbers) until concluding in the value of the type of level to which the chemical element corresponds.

 

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